MIES biblioteka

Naujausi A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T V W Y Z

ISBN: 0-521-34628-2
Brūkšninis kodas: 4202203
Ieškoti VUB kataloge

     This volume provides students, teachers and practitioners with a comprehensive introduction to the main descriptive and prescriptive approaches to judgment and decision making in clinical medicine. The contributors, who include psychologists, economists, decision theorists, statisticians, lawyers and sociologists, as well as medical specialists, provide examples of recent empirical research and its applications, as well as outlining the relevant concepts and theories. Policy-capturing models, data-based aids, expert (knowledge-based) systems and decision analysis are the main techniques introduced, with attention to both their methodological bases and practical evaluation.

Contributor affiliations page x
Editors` preface xv
Introduction 1
Part I The art and science of uncertainty
1 Variations in physician practice: the role of uncertainty
D.M. Eddy 45
2 From technical rationality to reflection-in-action
D.A. Schon 60
3 Clinical intuition and clinical analysis: expertise and the cognitive continuum
R.M. Hamm 78
Part II Modelling the clinician and the clinical task
4 Psychology of clinical reasoning
A.S. Elstein and G. Bordage 109
Statistical approaches
5 How physicians use clinical information in diagnosing pulmonary embolism: an application of conjoint analysis
R.S. Wington, V.L. Hoellerich and K.D. Patil 130
6 You can`t systematize human judgment: dyslexia
R.M. Dawea 150
7 Factors influencing the use of a decision rule in a probabilstic task
H.R. Arkes, R.M. Dawes and C. Christensen 163
8 Accepting error to make less error
H.J. Einhorn 181
9 Computer-aided diegnosis of acute abdominal pain: the British experience
F.T. de Dombal 190
Process-tracing approaches
10 The art of diagnosis: solving the clinicopathological exercise
D.M. Eddy and C.H. Clanton 200
11 Toward a theory of clinical expertise
J.P. Kassirer, B.J. Kuipers and G.A. Gorry 212
12 Formal and knowledge-based methods in decision technology
J.Fox 226
Part II The decision analytic approach to clinical decisions
Decision analysis
13 Clinical decisionmaking
P. Doubilet and B.J. McNeil 255
14 Recurrent deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy: analysis of the risks and benefits of anticoagulationn
K. Klein and S.G. Pauker 277
15 Comparison of physicians` decisions regarding estrogen replacement therapy for menopausal women and decisions derived from a decision analytic model
A.S Elstein, G.B. Holzman, M.M. Ravitch et al. 298
Handling uncertainty
16 Hypothesis evaluation from a Bayesian perspective
B. Fischhoff and R. Beyth-Marom 323
17 Differential diagnosis and the competing-hypotheses heuristic: a practical approach to judgment under uncertainty and Bayesian probability
F.M. Wolf, L.D. Gruppen and J.E. Billi 349
18 Physicians` use of probabilistic information in areal clinical setting
J.J.J. Christensen-Szalanski and J.B.Bushyhead 360
19 Hindsight bias among physicians weighing the likelihood of diagnoses
H.R. Arkes, P.D. Saville, R.L. Wortmann et al. 374
Handling values
20 How decisions are reached: physician and patient
S.A. Eraker and P. Politser 379
21 The measurement of patients` values in medicine
H. Llewellyn-Thomas, H.J. Sutherland, R. Tibshirani et al. 395
22 Clinical decision analysis
B. Fischhoff 409
Part IV The contexts of clinical decisions
The economic context
23 Rationing hospital care: lessons from Britain
W.B. Schwartz and H.J. Aaron 427
24 Resource allocation decisions in health care: a role for quality of life assessments?
M.F. Drummond 436
25 Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very-low-birth-weight infants
M.H. Boyle, G. W. Torrance, J.C. Sinclair and S.P. Horwood 456
The ethical and legal context
26 An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics
D. Candee and B.Puka 474
C. Fletcher 488
27 Ethics and resource allocation: an economist`s view
A. McGuire 492
28 Informed consent: court viewpoints and medical decision making
D.J. Mazur 508
The professional context
29 Forgive and remember: making medical failure
C.L. Bosk 522
30 Why doctors don`t disclose uncertainty
J. Katz 544

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